Don't be so quick to dismiss digital sculpting for an alleged lack of tactility. I've been using a system that provides it, with a force-feedback arm device that lets me feel what I'm doing as I'm sculpting in real time. Once I've come up with something worthwhile, I can bring it into physical reality, even carve it in wood, splinters and all...
Your idea of scanning and reproducing your sculpted figures is perfectly feasible, but lacking a way to pose them differently, I don't see how it would differ in effect from molding and casting them - you'd end up with multiple identical figurines (although you could scale them). To take full advantage of the 3D printing process, you'd want to use virtual figures that were "rigged" so their joints would move realistically; then you could populate your dioramas with figures in different attitudes.